Various types of worms can be seen everywhere, and children account for 80% of cases. Worms or worms (from Greek. Parasitic worms) are lower worms that parasitize humans and animals. They cause a pathology called helminthiasis. According to the World Health Organization, 50% of the population is infected each year: pinworms (1. 2 billion people), hookworms (900 million) and whipworms (up to 700 million).
What are the types of worms? So far, more than 400 worms have been found in humans. All types of human worms are divided into two categories: flat and round (nematodes). In turn, the flat ones are subdivided into bands (taenia) and flukes (flukes). Tapeworms are still divided into tapeworms and tapeworms.
The idea that human worms only live in the intestines is an illusion. They can move through the body with the blood and settle in various places. All types of parasitic worms feed on their host and use it during their life cycle.
The cycle of worms in nature
In order to maintain their appearance, the parasites must constantly enter the external environment, leave the host, settle in the animal, and use them as an intermediate host. In this process, carriers are very important: machinery-they can be insects that use their claws to carry worms at long distances. In the body of an insect, the worm is lifeless.
A specific vector or intermediate host-in which the parasite only goes through one of its developmental cycles. When spreading, the method of spreading the worm is very important:
- Contact-penetration of intact skin and mucous membranes (hookworm);
Reproductive characteristics of worms
Most lower worms are hermaphrodites, but there are also sex-difference worms-nematodes. If worms change several hosts (sometimes as many as 4) during their development cycle, they are called biological worms. If they live with only one owner, they are ground worms.
Stages of worm development:
- Egg stage-the female lays immature eggs, matures in the external environment, and then returns to humans through the mouth.
- The second stage-the larva hatches from the egg. This process occurs in the digestive tract. It migrates through the body, looking for ideal habitat. After finding it, it will continue to develop into an adult.
- The third stage is when the adults lay eggs again. It should be noted that worms do not develop in all organisms, but only in those organisms that are suitable for them. That is, the host is the larvae of ungulates. When predators enter the body, they will survive, but theyWill you lay eggs here?
Types of helminthiasis
The types of human worms are classified according to their habitat: lumen and tissue. In the first case, the parasite lives in the cavity of a hollow organ, the most common being the intestine: ascariasis, trichomes, strongyloidosis, nematodes, etc. Tissues live in the thickness of various organs and tissues. Which organs are affected by worms? They can stabilize and affect the hepatobiliary system, brain, eyes, lymph nodes, and lungs, so the disease can have several names:
- Liver damage-hydatid disease;
- Brain damage-cysticercosis;
- Lymph nodes-filariasis;
- Pulmonary helminthiasis-paragonimiasis;
- Tissue helminthiasis-the name of the worm: trichinosis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, toxoplasmosis.
- Ophthalmic Helminthiasis-When the eyes are affected by parasites, the developmental stages of the larvae and worms cause more obvious pathological changes.
Parasitic worms can be found from the Arctic to the equator, but those with tropical characteristics will not be diagnosed in residents of northern latitudes. The degree of infection among people with helminthiasis depends on the country's economic level and climate. The most common types of worms are pinworms, roundworms, and whipworms. The organism becomes the source of infection-the ultimate host.
Ways of worm infection:
- Diet-use unwashed or fly-infected products, insufficient heat treatment of meat, eat raw fish, drink raw water, swallow water while swimming in a pond, eat raw and cooked food with a knife.
- Fecal-oral transmission: contaminated household items, not washing hands after going to the toilet, contact with animals.
- Transmission path. Spread by insect bites.
After contact with a dog, you may be infected with a wide range of tapeworms, echinococcus, roundworms, and pork tapeworms. Worm eggs can be on the fur of dogs. In addition, these animals have the habit of eating other people's feces while walking. From cats: same as dogs, as well as trematodes from cats, from chickens-roundworms, from humans-pinworms, dwarf and pork tapeworms, hookworms.
The effect of worms on the body
Parasites use their waste products, toxins and enzymes to sensitize the body, leading to:
- Allergies and poisoning;
- Mechanical damage to the mucous membrane by suction cups and hooks;
- Large worms can block the intestinal cavity.
- In addition, worms will eat a large part of the BJU, which can lead to anemia, vitamin and trace element deficiency, hypoxia, and malnutrition;
- Noted that indigestion, children's psychophysical development is lagging behind.
- With many helminths, chronic blood loss occurs.
- Worms worsen existing conditions, suppress immunity, increase the risk of tuberculosis and tumor conditions, and reduce the effectiveness of vaccination.
Characteristics of the most common worms
What does roundworm look like? When cut, they are round, hence the name. Roundworms have their own characteristics. The first is extraordinary endurance: they can survive in formalin for 5 years. In addition, they are characterized by a simple development cycle, a straight digestive system and rapid reproduction.
Pinworm disease (human disease, visceral hand disease) can cause pinworm disease. They look like small white worms up to 1 cm long (males are only 3 mm) with slightly pointed ends. They live in the lower part of the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine. They are contact worms. The eggs are laid in the anus. The development cycle lasts 2 weeks, and their life span is 1-2 months. More common in children. They use head vesicles to attach to the intestinal wall. Female pinworms enter the anus at night and lay eggs there. In doing so, they secrete a special fluid that can cause itching. The child is combing his butt, and at the same time he is self-infected. After laying eggs, the female dies. The harm they cause is to release enzymes, irritate the intestinal wall and cause inflammation.
Roundworms cause ascariasis. These are red and white roundworms, up to 50 cm long and up to 6 cm wide. The male has a curved end. Roundworms live in the small intestine, but the larvae actively migrate in the body with a life cycle of up to one year. The larvae of worms live in the lungs. Their waste can cause poisoning and intestinal obstruction.
Parasites are ground worms, that is, they develop in the soil and spread from there to humans. They are known for their great fertility and can produce up to 240, 000 eggs per day. Eggs have a very strong three-layer shell and can easily fall into the soil. Here, under the influence of oxygen, humidity and a certain temperature, larvae form in it. This process can take from 2 weeks to several months, depending on the temperature. This mature egg with larvae enters the human body again through the oral route. In the intestine, the larvae leave and are carried throughout the body by the blood. Its favorite habitat is the alveoli, because there is oxygen here, and the larvae are aerobic. Adults are anaerobic bacteria. After reaching 3-4 mm in length, the larvae enter the bronchus after 4-5 days, causing coughing. When coughed up, it is swallowed and returned to the intestines, where it matures. The life cycle of the parasite can be up to one year.
Vlasoglav is a nematode that causes trichomoniasis. The color ranges from gray to red and is 2-5 cm long. It has sharp hairs on the tip, hence the name. The parasites attach to the intestinal wall and feed on the blood and mucosal tissues of the host. Inhabit the large intestine and appendix, where the larvae reach sexual maturity and lay 350 eggs per day. The life cycle of the parasite is 4-5 years. Destroy the intestinal wall, leading to its failure: it can cause appendicitis, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and anemia. Worm eggs enter the soil with human feces, where they can survive for up to 2 years.
Toxocariasis causes toxoplasmosis. It is a yellow worm similar to roundworms, but 15-20 cm in length. It is a biological worm, which is infected by dogs. They exist in the form of eggs. In the human intestine, larvae emerge from it. They migrate in the body, damage the internal organs and cause allergies. The severity of the clinic depends on the immunity and the number of worms. Collect eggs every day-up to 250, 000. Life cycle-up to 10 years.
Trichinella causes trichinosis, which is considered the most dangerous helminthiasis because it usually ends in death. Nematodes are only 5 mm long. Infection can occur when eating poorly roasted pork. Trichinella worms are fertilized in the intestine, and the larvae hatch and hatch in the female. On the one hand, females attach themselves to the intestinal wall and discard up to 2000 live larvae. This process is called egg production and takes 3-4 days. The larvae are carried by the bloodstream and settle in the striated muscles, especially in chewing, oculomotor nerves, respiratory tract, and shoulder flexors. Difficult disease: abdominal pain, muscle pain, head joint pain, fever, facial swelling, and poisoning occurred 2 weeks after the invasion. In the muscle, after a month, the larvae are wrapped in a spiral shape and can remain cystic for 20 years without losing their viability. 1. After 5 months, it will recover with proper treatment.
Hookworms and hookworms are similar to each other, so their helminthiasis has a common name-hookworm. They can be up to 1. 5 cm in length and live in the duodenum. Worms are very common, but they are rarely found. The larvae can penetrate the skin through contact with the soil. The development cycle is very similar to that of roundworms. Hookworms live in the intestines and only feed on blood. A person can absorb 0. 35 ml of blood per day. Therefore, anemia and dysproteinemia are characteristic features.
Flatworms have a flat shape. They have no gender differences, they are hermaphrodite. They are fixed in the intestines with hooks and suction cups.
Bovine tapeworms-tapeworms that cause tapeworms. It has a small head with 4 suction cups and 6 hooks, a 1000-section tapered body, and a length of 20 m. Parasites are biological worms that are infected through beef and its larvae are there. Each part contains hundreds of thousands of eggs. Without treatment, tapeworms can live on humans for up to 20 years. It lives in the small intestine and draws nutrients from the entire surface of the body. The life span is up to 10 years.
Pork tapeworm-tapeworm, which causes tapeworm disease or cysticercosis. It reaches-3-8 m and has double hook edges. The life cycle is 20 to 30 years. It can live in any organ, and it has poorly roasted pork. This cycle is similar to a bullish tapeworm. The segments of this tapeworm can crawl out of the anus. They rupture on the surface of the skin and the eggs fall out. Worms live in the intestines and cause allergies and gastrointestinal problems.
Tapeworms cause dilobite filariasis. The body of the parasite is more than 10m long, flat and wide. Biological worms are transmitted to humans through freshwater fish or crustaceans. For decades, worms have been parasitic in the small intestine and attached to the wall of the small intestine. Within 25 days, the parasites become adults. They feed on blood and cause diarrhea and abdominal pain.
Echinococcus-biological worms, small tape worms, up to 3-5 mm long. It has a corolla with 2 hooks and suckers on its head, and the parasite has 4-5 segments. The latter is his reproductive system. It forms 10 cm long cysts (Finns) in the organs, in which the eggs and larvae are located. The cyst destroys the surrounding tissues. They will rupture, and then toxic shock or multiple new cysts will appear. The last owner is the wolf, and the man in the middle. After gastrointestinal infection or contact with pets. In the intestines, larvae (oncospheres) emerge from eggs and are carried throughout the body through the bloodstream. Usually, they settle in the parenchyma of the liver and lungs, but they also live in the intestines. Cysts can only be removed by surgery.
Cat flukes are liver flukes, cat flukes or Siberian flukes. Causes posterior testicular disease. It is lanceolate, 1-2 cm long and 2 mm wide, with 2 oral suckers on the head. Humans are invaded by infected freshwater fish, which eat the eggs of snails or crustaceans. People are the main masters. The parasite lives in the cavity of the small intestine and biliary tract. The life cycle is as long as 20 years, and thousands of individuals are parasitic in one organism at the same time. The acute phase of the disease is characterized by pain in the upper abdomen, fever, nausea, myalgia, diarrhea, and rash. As the process becomes chronic, symptoms of hepatic cholecystitis will appear, and they will not disappear even after getting rid of the worms.
Course and symptoms
In the acute phase, symptoms may appear at different times, depending on the incubation period, but more often appear after 2-3 weeks. The most common symptoms: allergic rash, swollen lymph nodes, local or general edema, arthralgia and myalgia. When migrating to the lungs, coughing, asthma attacks, bowel disturbances (diarrhea), nausea, and vomiting may occur.
In the chronic phase, symptoms depend on the organs where the parasites settle and their number. The main signs are:
- Frequent itching in the anal area;
- sleep disorder;
- Skin rash and itching;
- Increased appetite and exhaustion;
- Joint and muscle pain;
- Yellow skin;
- May have a long-term low-heat state;
- Discomfort in the umbilicus or right side;
- Periodic nausea and vomiting;
The affected skin is pale and dry, hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes fall off, nails become brittle, tooth decay, bleeding gums, and bad breath.
Diagnostic measures and prevention
To make a diagnosis, scrape from the rectum and perianal area and analyze the stool. In this case, the worm is very clearly visible under the microscope. Perform blood tests on eosinophils and protein balance. Can check sputum, stomach contents and duodenal contents.
To maintain personal and public health, adequate heat treatment of meat and fish can prevent humans from infecting any worms. All pets require regular veterinary inspection and further treatment.